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science and invention

Pierre de Fermat
August 17, 1601

Pierre de Fermat wrote in the margin of his copy of the Arithmetica by Diophantus of Alexandria:
"I have discovered a truly remarkable proof but this margin is too small to contain it"

The proof was for his theorem in which he states that no three positive integers x, y, and z can satisfy the equation xn + yn = zn where n is an integer greater than two.
Fermat's Last Theorem, also called Fermat's great theorem, was his best known work. He is also given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his adequality. In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallestordinates of curved lines, which is analogous to that of the then unknown differential calculus, and his research into number theory. He made notable contributions to analytic geometry, probability, and optics.

mendel Gregor Mendel
July 20, 1822
a Czech-German Augustinian friar and scientist, who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the new science of genetics for his study of the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants. Mendel showed that the inheritance of these traits follows particular laws, which were later named after him. The significance of Mendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century. The independent rediscovery of these laws formed the foundation of the modern science of genetics.
audobon John James Audubon
April 26, 1785
a French-American ornithologist, naturalist, hunter, and painter. He painted, catalogued, and described the birds of North America in a manner far superior to what had gone before. Born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and raised in France as a youth, in his embrace of America and his outsize personality and achievements, he represented the new American people of the United States.
Richard Trevithick Richard Trevithick
April 13, 1771
a British Cornish inventor and mining engineer. His most significant success was the high pressure steam engine and he also built the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive. On 21 February 1804 the world's first locomotive-hauled railway journey took place as Trevithick's unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren Ironworks, near Merthyr Tydfil in Wales.
bunsen Robert Bunsen
March 31, 1811

This was an interactive Google logo: as you moved your mouse up and down, the flame size increased or decreased accordingiy. The larger the flame, the faster the liquid boiled and steam came out of the teapot. As you moved your mouse to the left the flame got more yellow / to the right, more red.

a German chemist, Bunsen investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium (in 1860) and rubidium (in 1861) with Gustav Kirchhoff. Bunsen developed several gas-analytical methods, was a pioneer in photochemistry, and did early work in the field of organoarsenic chemistry. With his laboratory assistant, Peter Desaga, he developed the Bunsen burner, an improvement on the laboratory burners then in use. The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after Bunsen and Kirchhoff.

Guillermo Guillermo Gonzalez Camarena
February 17, 1917
a Mexican engineer who was the inventor of a color-wheel type of color television, and who also introduced color television to Mexico. González Camarena invented the "Chromoscopic adapter for television equipment", an early color television transmission system. He obtained authorization to make the first publicly-announced color broadcast in Mexico, on February 8, 1963, Paraíso Infantil, on Mexico City's XHGC-TV, a station that he established in 1952.
edison Thomas Edison
February 11, 1847
an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. He is credited with numerous inventions that contributed to mass communication and, in particular, telecommunications. These included a stock ticker, a mechanical vote recorder, a battery for an electric car, electrical power, recorded music and motion pictures. His advanced work in these fields was an outgrowth of his early career as a telegraph operator. Edison originated the concept and implementation of electric-power generation and distribution to homes, businesses, and factories – a crucial development in the modern industrialized world.
kenjiro Takayanagi Kenjiro
January 20, 1899
( 2011)
a Japanese pioneer in the development of television. Although he failed to gain much recognition in the West, he built the world's first all-electronic television receiver. He began research on television after reading about the new technology in a French magazine. He developed a system similar to that of John Logie Baird, using a Nipkow disk to scan the subject and generate electrical signals. But unlike Baird, Takayanagi took the important step of using a cathode ray tube to display the received signal.
2010 Nikolay Pirogov
November 25, 1810
a prominent Russian scientist, doctor, pedagogue, public figure, and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is considered to be the founder of field surgery, and was one of the first surgeons in Europe to use ether as an anaesthetic. He was the first surgeon to use anaesthesia in a field operation, invented various kinds of surgical operations, and developed his own technique of using plaster casts to treat fractured bones. His name is one of the most widely recognised in Russian medical history, and he is considered a Russian national hero.
x rays 115th anniversary of x rays
(November 8, 2010)
Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their most common use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography. As a result, the term X-ray is metonymically used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself.
Milstein César Milstein
October 8, 1927
an Argentine biochemist in the field of antibody research. Milstein shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984. Milstein's early work on antibodies focused on the nature of their diversity at the amino acid level as well as on the disulphide bonds by which they were held together. Part of this work was done in collaboration with his wife, Celia.
arf Cahit Arf
October 11, 1910
a Turkish mathematician. He is known for the Arf invariant of a quadratic form in characteristic 2 (applied in knot theory and surgery theory) in topology, the Hasse–Arf theorem in ramification theory, Arf semigroups, and Arf rings.
25th anniverary of the Buckyball A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Spherical fullerenes are also called buckyballs, and cylindrical ones are called carbon nanotubes or buckytubes. Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite, which is composed of stacked graphene sheets of linked hexagonal rings; but they may also contain pentagonal (or sometimes heptagonal) rings.
The first fullerene to be discovered, and the family's namesake, was buckminsterfullerene (C60), prepared in 1985 by Richard Smalley, Robert Curl, James Heath, Sean O'Brien, and Harold Kroto at Rice University. The name was an homage to Richard Buckminster Fuller, whose geodesic domes it resembles. Fullerenes have since been found to occur (if rarely) in nature.
(more info)
zuse Konrad Zuse
June 22, 1910
A German engineer and computer pioneer.
His greatest achievement was the world's first functional program-controlled Turing-complete computer, in 1941 (the program was stored on a punched tape). One of the inventors of ALGOL (Rutishauser) wrote: "The very first attempt to devise an algorithmic language was undertaken in 1948 by K. Zuse. His notation was quite general, but the proposal never attained the consideration it deserved."
Asteroid Explorer Hayabusa Returns
June 16, 2010

The sample recovery capsule installed in the Hayabusa asteroid probe successfully landed on Sunday night , June 13, 2010 at Woomera, South Australia, following a seven year mission to a small asteroid 300 million kilometers away. The probe was developed to collect particles from the surface of the asteroid Itokawa and to return them to Earth - the world's first mission of this kind.

cousteau Jacques Cousteau
June 11, 1910
gabor Dennis Gabor
June 5, 1900
a British-Hungarian electrical engineer and inventor, most notable for inventing holography, for which he later received the 1971 Nobel Prize in Physics.

John Harsanyi
May 29, 1920

Hungarian-Australian-American economist and Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences winner. He is best known for his contributions to the study of game theory and its application to economics, specifically for his developing the highly innovative analysis of games of incomplete information, so-called Bayesian games. He also made important contributions to the use of game theory and economic reasoning in political and moral philosophy as well as contributing to the study of equilibrium selection. For his work, he was a co-recipient along with John Nash and Reinhard Selten of the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.
milankovic Milutin Milankovich
May 28, 1879
a Serbian geophysicist and civil engineer, best known for his theory of ice ages, suggesting a relationship between Earth's long-term climate changes and periodic changes in its orbit, now known as Milankovitch cycles.
pi day Pi Day
Albert Einstein Bday

March 14, 2010
Celebrating the mathematical constant Pi, 3.1415926...

as well as the birthday of Albert Einstein
Newton Sir Isacc Newton
January 4, 1643 - March 31, 1727
English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian who is perceived and considered by a substantial number of scholars and the general public as one of the most influential scientists in history. His 1687 publication of the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (usually called the Principia) is considered to be among the most influential books in the history of science, laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution.
 Jan Evangelista Purkyne Jan Evangelista Purkyne
Dec. 18,1787
Czech anatomist and physiologist, he discovered the Purkinje effect, whereby as light intensity decreases red objects seem to fade faster than blue objects of the same brightness. Best known for his 1837 discovery of Purkinje cells, large neurons with many branching dendrites found in the cerebellum. He is also known for his discovery, in 1839 of Purkinje fibres, the fibrous tissue that conducts electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node to all parts of the ventricles of the heart.
Qian Xusen Qian Xusen
Dec. 11,1911
Brilliant rocket scientist who single-handedly led China’s space and military rocketry efforts.
galileo 400th anniversary of Galileo's Telescope
Aug 25, 2009
orsted Hans Christian Ørsted
born 14 August 1777

Danish physicist and chemist who is best known for discovering that electric currents can create magnetic fields, which is an important part of electromagnetism. He shaped post-Kantian philosophy and advances in science throughout the late 19th century. He was also the first modern thinker to explicitly describe and name the thought experiment. While preparing for an evening lecture on 21 April 1820, Ørsted developed an experiment which provided evidence that surprised him. As he was setting up his materials, he noticed a compass needle deflected from magnetic north when the electric current from the battery he was using was switched on and off. This deflection convinced him that magnetic fields radiate from all sides of a wire carrying an electric current, just as light and heat do, and that it confirmed a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism. The findings influenced French physicist Andre-Marie Ampere's developments of a single mathematical form to represent the magnetic forces between current-carrying conductors. Ørsted's discovery also represented a major step toward a unified concept of energy.


Nikola Tesla
born July 10, 1856


Chen Jingrun's Birthday
China (2009)
May 22, 1933

Chinese mathematician who made significant contributions to number theory. Chen is ranked as one of the leading mathematicians in the twentieth century and one of China's most influential mathematicians in history.
Darwin fossil The Missing Link found
May 20, 2009
popov Alexander Popov's Invention of the Radio
May 7, 2009
pi Zu Zhongzhi's Birthday
April 20, 429
Zu Zhongzhi (Tsu Chung-chih, 429–500) calculated the figure 3.14159265 as the exact value for pi.
hyugen Christiaan Huygens' Birthday (Netherlands)
April 16, 1629
prominent Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist, horologist, and writer of early science fiction. His work included early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, investigations and inventions related to time keeping and the pendulum clock, and studies of both optics and the centrifugal force.
Huygens achieved note for his argument that light consists of waves,[1], now known as the Huygens–Fresnel principle, which became instrumental in the understanding of wave-particle duality. He generally receives credit for his discovery of the centrifugal force, the laws for collision of bodies, for his role in the development of modern calculus and his original observations on sound perception. Huygens is seen as the first theoretical physicist as he was the first to use formulae in physics.

Tadataka Ino's Birthday
February 11, 1745

Completed the first map of Japan created using modern surveying techniques.

Feb 13, 2009



Johann Philipp Reis
January 7, 2009

German scientist and inventor, who in 1860-1861 constructed an early telephone, today called the Reis telephone.
Richard Bowyer Smith's Birthday
September 2, 1837
Australian inventor, who, with his brother Clarence, created the first stump-jump plough, entitled the Vixen, in 1876. The South Australian government had offered a reward of £200 to anyone who could develop an effective mechanical stump puller due to frustration with lack of productivity efficiency on its farms with current equipment. The plough consisted of any number of hinged shares: when the blade encountered an underground obstacle, it would rise out of the ground. Attached weights forced the blade back into the ground after the root was passed, allowing as much of the ground to be furrowed as possible. Although a little unorthodox, it proved remarkably effective, and was dubbed the "stump-jump" plough.
Anniversary of the first film projection
May 15, 2008
Antonio Meucci
April 13, 2008
Italian inventor, who developed a form of voice communication apparatus in 1857. Many credit him with the invention of the telephone
oaramertron Parametron Computer 1
March 26, 2008
hadron collider Sept 10, 2008
Large Hadron Collider
(see more)
12 • 3
Laser's Invention Laser Light's Invention
May 15, 1960
Alexander Graham Bell's Bday March 3, 2008  
Braille Happy Birthday Louis Braille

January 4 (2006)

Birthday of Julia Gaston Birthday of Gaston Julia
February 3, 2004
Gaston Maurice Julia (February 3, 1893 - March 19, 1978) was a French mathematician who devised the formula for the Julia set. His works were popularised by French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot, and the Julia and Mandelbrot fractals are closely related.
Albert Einstein's Birthday
March 14
Celebrating DNA's 50th Anniversary Celebrating the Discovery of DNA
50th Anniversary